Maine was originally part of Massachusetts. It was included in the Charter of New England in 1620 and the Charter of Massachusetts Bay in 1629; the latter became the Constitution of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, predecessor to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1819, Massachusetts agreed to allow its district of Maine to petition for statehood. Maine was admitted to the Union as a separate state on March 15, 1820, as the 23rd state. The state’s boundary with Canada was not formally established until the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842, when Maine assumed generally the same boundary as the present state.
Census data for Maine are available beginning with the 1790 census. Maine was enumerated as a separate district within the state of Massachusetts in the 1790, 1800, and 1810 censuses. Presentation of data as a separate state began with the 1820 census. The population of the legal area of Massachusetts (of which the area of Maine was a part) was 700,745 in 1810; 574,564 in 1800; and 475,327 in 1790.
Data for the legally established state of Maine are available beginning with the 1820 census.
See: Geographic Terms & Concepts
Counties & County Equivalents
There are 16 counties in Maine. Each county is governed by a board of county commissioners.
There are 533 county subdivisions in Maine known as minor civil divisions (MCDs). There are 433 towns which are functioning governmental units, each governed by a board of selectmen. There are 34 plantations which are functioning but not necessarily active governmental units, each governed by a board of assessors. There is one gore which is a nonfunctioning nongovernmental geographic subdivision of a county. There are three American Indian reservations that constitute four county subdivisions. There are 22 incorporated places which are independent of any other MCD and treated as MCD equivalents. There are also 39 unorganized territories.
Places (Incorporated Cities, Towns & Census Designated Places (CDPs))
Maine has 131 places; 22 incorporated places and 109 census designated places (CDPs). The incorporated places are all cities. In Maine, incorporated places are independent of county subdivisions. An incorporated place in Maine can legally exist in only a single county. The 22 incorporated places create 22 county subdivisions. Cities and MCDs have similar governmental functions, each governed by a board of selectmen.
Alphabetical List of Cities, Towns, CDPs and Other Populated Places
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q, R | S | T | U, V | W, X, Y, Z
Maine Civil Features
Maine Civil Features: Political Subdivisions, Native Areas, Land Grants, etc. - sorted by Census Class Codes.
Metropolitan and Micropolitan Stastical Areas
There are 3 Metropolitan and 1 Micropolitan Statistical Areas in Maine. ME Metopolitan & Micropolitan Areas
Maine ZIP Code Tabulation Areas
There are 433 ZIP Code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) in Maine. View Maine ZIP Codes and ZIP Code Maps.
Maine has 5 elementary school districts, 4 secondary school districts, and 240 unified school districts. View Maine Public and Private Schools.
For the 111th Congress (January 2009-January 2011), Maine had two congressional districts. For the 113th Congress (January 2013-January 2015), Maine continues to have two congressional districts as a result of reapportionment based on the 2010 Census. View Map of Maine Congressional Districts.
State Legislative Districts
There are 35 state senate districts and 151 state house districts in Maine. In addition, there is one state senate district and one state house district not defined which is comprised of water area.
American Indian Areas
Maine has six federally recognized American Indian areas. There are four reservations, two with off-reservation trust land. There are also two trust lands.
Other Information Of General Geographic Interest
Maine is the most sparsely populated state east of the Mississippi River.
Maine is the only state that borders only one other state.